Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence
In this era of technology, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the methods that is extensively implementing in many areas. Several people have the impression that AI allows a machine to take all decisions by itself and because of this, very soon most of the human dependent things will be replaced by thinking machines. It is true that AI based systems have the ability to make their own decisions, but it has some limitations as compared to Human Intelligence (HI). With that note, our idea is to explain the capabilities and possibilities of AI as a blog series and we are starting it by introducing AI in comparison with HI.
Intelligence is the ability for understanding, thinking, reasoning, knowledge gaining/ problem solving and learning . Because of these characteristics it can be trained, measured, tested and transformed . The intelligence in humans/ HI is the capability of the mind to learn, gain knowledge and perform the given task . Likewise, intelligence in machine/ AI is the ability of a machine to analyze the condition based on historical data and experience and perform the actions . Basically, we can say that AI is the simulation of HI.
The major differences between the two are ,
1. HI accommodates new situations using different combinations of cognitive processes whereas AI creates an instrument that can mimic the human behavior
2. HI functions based on the brain’s thinking ability and memory power but the AI is dependent on the data instructions given by the operator/ developer
3. As defined, HI is an intellectual capacity that depends on diverse circumstances and it is about learning from own or one's mistakes, however, AI needs endless training and data to match up the human’s unique thought process
Over the years, AI has challenged the HI and proved that it can function better than humans. Two and a half decades ago for the first time, the IBM Deep Blue challenged world chess champion, Garry Kasparov. In 1996 the first chess match was won by Kasparov and again in 1997 the second match was conducted and this time the machine (IBM Deep Blue) beat the world champion . Likewise, many other events showed that the AI is faster, accurate, and finer than HI . However, though the machine has the capability of taking its own judgments, it cannot make sensible decisions like humans.
The “human aspect” that is missing in AI
We can say that by using AI technology we have built thinking machines that could perform better than the HI in a few scenarios. However, a lot more work has to be done to make it equal to human intelligence . In simple words, we can explain the AI mechanism as it compares the new set of information with its existing database and gives the result of its closest match. Since the AI functions based on the data used for training, it fails to apply the “cause” and “effect” concept in real-life scenarios .
As discussed before, because of a lack of emotions and common sense AI cannot make a rational decision like us. Our day-to-day life experiences are mainly based on the “trial” and “error” principle, but in the case of AI, even though these systems are developed with the help of different permutation and combination rules and various kinds of data and computational algorithms; it fails to “sense/ feel” a situation like us .
Despite all its limitations, AI systems have advantages like faster execution, less bias in decision making, working ability, accurate results and monotonous judgments . So there is a fear that soon AI will replace human intelligence. But because of the lack of a couple of key human factors, there is a long way to go to substitute the HI with AI. As the American computer scientist Dr. Alen Kay said “Some people worry that artificial intelligence will make us feel inferior, but then, anybody in his right mind should have an inferiority complex every time he looks at a flower”. It cannot perform independently without the help of humans; however, we need AI machines to perform at our best.
1. Stenberg RJ (2017). Human intelligence. In: Britannica. Blog link: https://www.britannica.com/science/human-intelligence-psychology.
2. Ruhl C (2020). Intelligence: Definition, theories and testing. In: SimplyPsychology. Blog link: https://www.simplypsychology.org/intelligence.html.
3. Colom R, Karama S, Jung RE, Haier RJ (2010).Human intelligence and brain networks. Dialogues Clinical Neuroscience. 12(4): 489-50. PMID: 21319494.
4. Smith C (2006). Introduction. In: The history of artificial intelligence. pp. 4-5. File link.
5. Vadapalli P (2020). AI vs human intelligence: Difference between AI & human intelligence. In: upGrade blog. Blog link: https://www.upgrad.com/blog/ai-vs-human-intelligence/.
6. Higgins C (2017). A brief history of Deep Blue, IBM’s chess computer. In: Mental Floss. Link: https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/503178/brief-history-deep-blue-ibms-chess-computer
7. Milley J (2018). 11 times AI beat humans at games, art, law and everything in between. In: Interesting Engineering. Blog link: https://interestingengineering.com/11-times-ai-beat-humans-at-games-art-law-and-everything-in-between.
8. Bhushan D (2020). Artificial intelligence Vs human intelligence: Humans, not machines, will build the future. In: Springboard Blog. Blog link: https://in.springboard.com/blog/artificial-intelligence-vs-human-intelligence/.
9. Artificial intelligence vs human intelligence. In: EDUCBA. Blog link: https://www.educba.com/artificial-intelligence-vs-human-intelligence/.
Author: Parameshwar R. Hegde, PhD